A colon tumor is found to be an abnormal growth of cells that are present inside the colon. When a tumor spreads to the bottom of the colon then it is known as colorectal cancer. There are some colon tumors that are not cancerous and are named as benign polyps. But benign polyps never cause colon cancer, but if not treated then they can change into cancerous tumors. Colonoscopy helps in removing those benign polyps. For screening of colonic tumors, some tests are done like a virtual colonoscopy, a fecal blood test, a sigmoidoscopy, a digital rectal exam, and a double contrast barium enema.
Some possible signs of colon cancer are as:
- Change in bowel habit
- Weight loss
- Blood in stool
- Persistent fatigue
- Abdominal pain
Surgery is the most common choice for colorectal cancer treatment. The surgery involves removing up of tumors, the section of colon in which tumor is found, surrounding normal tissue, and lymph nodes. Finally reattaching the healthy ends of your intestine. Patients also receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy pre or post-surgery. Those adjuvant therapies help in shrinking tumors and so that they can be removed easily.
Diagnosis of benign tumors of colon and rectum needs the following:
- You have to undergo a complete examination
- Your surgeon will need endoscopy including anoscopy, or colonoscopy that depends upon what segment of colon is to be removed. During a biopsy, your doctor may remove a small part of your tumor and may examine it under a microscope.
- Some imaging studies are also done to check the size and location of your tumors such as X-ray, MRI scan, CT scan, and ultrasound.
The treatment lies in removing out the tumor through a surgical procedure.
Endoscopic surgery: Those are done with the help of scope and camera. This allows the surgeon to check through your colon and perform procedures without any incisions causing less pain and discomfort. Endoscopies performed may involve colonoscopy, anoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and rigid sigmoidoscopy.
Minimal invasive colorectal procedures: Those involve a short recovery period, minimum incisions, and less bleeding. Some surgeries performed are as rectal prolapse, laparoscopic colectomy, and transanal endoscopic microsurgery.
Open abdominal surgeries: Some surgeries are as small bowel resection, segmental colectomies, low anterior resection, and repair of rectal prolapse.