Dysphagia

Dysphagia

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Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing of food. Mainly of two types based level of obstruction

  • Oropharyngeal
    1. Mechanical – Due to obstructive pathology
    2. Transfer – Mainly due to neuromuscular pathology
  • Oesophageal
    1. Mechanical
      1. Esophageal stricture
      2. Esophageal cancer
      3. Esophageal web
      4. Extrinsic compression of compression by lymph nodes
    2. Motor
      1. Achalasia cardia

Diagnosis

Following test are required for diagnosis

  1. Endoscopy
  2. Barium swallow
  3. Esophageal manometry
  4. CECT chest

Treatment

Treatment depends upon the cause and includes

  1. Endoscopy and dilatation for stricture
  2. Stent placement for malignancy
  3. Balloon dilatation and medications for Achalasia