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Indigestion is a group of symptoms pertaining to upper abdomen, such as:

  • Post prandial fullness
  • Early satiety
  • Epigastric pain
  • Epigatsric burning
  • Bloating in upper abdomen

Most of the times, after investigations no organic cause is found in these cases and dyspepsia is labeled as functional dyspepsia.

Organic causes of indigestion are:

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Gastric malignancy
  • Tuberculosis/sarcoidosis
  • Menetrier’s diseases
  • Parasitic infections
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Scleroderma
  • Medications
  • Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic malignancy
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Myocardial ischemia

Functional dyspepsia

Functional dyspepsia is defined as post prandial fullness, early satiety, epigastric pain or burning in the absence of gastrointestinal, systemic or metabolic causes likely to cause these symptoms.


Young patients with dyspepsia and without alarming symptoms such as dysphagia, weight loss, anemia, bleeding can be given a trial of medication, and should be investigated in case of persistent symptoms. Middle aged or elderly patients with fresh onset symptoms, or patients with alarming symptoms should be investigated.

Following are investigation done in patients with dyspepsia:

  • UGIE and H pylori testing
  • Thyroid function test
  • USG abdomen

Other investigation may be required depending the clinical situation.


Prokinetic drugs, proton pump inhibitors, simethicone, antidepressant, and SSRI are used for the treatment of dyspepsia.